A factor is a financial transaction that results in the reduction of an outstanding invoice. Factoring involves a third party who assumes the risk of a loan that will be due and payable from the business. The business accepts an advance payment from the factoring company and then pays the original invoice. Factoring companies typically settle invoices in cash or create a receivable.
The factoring system has multiple benefits to the lender. The factoring system relieves the financial institution from the potential liability of collecting bad debts from customers. When the business settles an invoice with a factoring company, it is effectively writing off the debt. Because there is no risk to the financial institution, the factoring system often has lower interest rates than other methods of debt resolution. In addition, factoring systems often provide a shorter payback period, which can save the business time and money.
A factor is a financial transaction that reduces or eliminates the risks inherent in certain credit transactions. In the mortgage industry, a factor is a contract that transfers the risk of ownership of a house between two parties. A mortgage factoring system transfers the risk of non-payment from the borrower to the lender. When a borrower fails to make payments on a house loan, the lender assumes the loss and assumes responsibility for the deficiency. This is one of the most important factors in the mortgage industry because non-payment creates financial losses for the lender.
Small firms usually face the higher level of credit risk because their capital structure does not permit the issuance of additional lines of credit. Credit risk is transferred to the lender through the factoring agreement. Most small firms also do not have the long term capital structure required to fund long-term accounts receivable loans. Some factoring agencies provide an option to reduce credit risk to small firms by converting home equity accounts receivables into accounts receivable at a discount.
A factoring transaction is a financial transaction in which the factoring company transfers a portion of the purchase price of the factoring assets to a third party, called the factor. The factor then assumes responsibility for the debts of the factoring firm by collecting monthly invoices from the customers of factoring. The rate of interest charged on invoices generated from these invoices by the factor is determined at the inception of the relationship. This is done in order to ensure that only a portion of the purchase price of the factoring assets is used to cover the third party’s debts and that the remaining amount is made available as profits to the factoring firm.
The factoring contracts typically specify the type of payments made and the amount of those payments that may be deferred until the customer actually pays the invoice. The factoring agreements may also specify minimums that must be met in order for the factoring companies to collect payment. The minimums are designed to protect the factoring company against potential losses due to underpayment or default. While these minimums are typically specified in the initial agreement, some factoring transactions allow for variations to accommodate the particular needs of the customers.
The factoring contract provides the factor with an option to buy the accounts receivable on a cash basis if the volume or quality of the receivables does not warrant such a high risk investment. Should the factor end up taking too large a loss, however, it will be forced out of business by the provisions of the contract. Once a sale of the receivables has been consummated, the balance sheet will reflect an outstanding balance that will result from the factoring transaction. The difference between the sales price of the receivables and the balance sheet balance is called the receivable margin and is the basis on which the factoring company may sell its accounts receivable to another factoring company at a discount. The factoring companies use this difference to settle their contracts with the customers.
While the receivables account is a one-time expense, the factoring company uses the receivable account as collateral for a series of loans that are used to purchase other receivables. When a customer pays his invoices via credit card, the factoring company buys the Visa debit card at its face value. Upon the customer’s payment, the debit card is converted from a credit card to a trust deed. The factoring company then sells the deed to a funding company at its current market value, minus the debt discount that was initially calculated. This sale is referred to as a face value loan.